By Abdulrahman Yarali
From the transition of analog to electronic communique besides seamless mobility and excessive computing energy of small hand-held units, the instant communications has visible large adjustments resulting in the combination of numerous telecommunication networks, units and prone over final 30 years. the speed of this growth and development has elevated really some time past decade simply because humans now not use their units and networks for voice in basic terms, yet call for package contents akin to information download/streaming, HDTV, HD video , 3D video conferencing with greater potency, seamless connectivity, intelligence, reliability and higher person event. even though the demanding situations dealing with provider companies and telecommunication businesses fluctuate by way of product, zone, marketplace measurement, and their parts of focus yet time to marketplace, effective usage in their resources and profit growth, have impacted considerably easy methods to deal with and behavior their enterprise whereas preserving adequate margin.
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Extra resources for 4G & Beyond. The Convergence of Networks, Devices, and Services
This requirement is more pertinent for long-time flows than for short-time ones. In fact, the effect induced by, for example, a handover process with high latency could be almost unnoticeable by a short-time flow due to the fact that flow during its short existence did not need any handover. The fourth requirement is how often a terminal becomes active from its dormant state. There is a tradeoff between the battery autonomy and how fast the terminal is moving between cells. If the terminal is changing between cells very often then that terminal is required to perform its cell registration also very often.
In addition, reference  studies proposals not only focused in multihoming but also covering mobile scenarios. Table 1. L iterature survey Main topic Session migration (tutorial style) Mobility management Network mobility (NEMO) Heterogeneous access networks Multihoming ID/Locator split Offloading Train networks Vehicular networks Aeronautical networks Satellite networks References  [65, 73] [67, 69, 70] [73, 77, 80, 81, 90, 91] [73, 81, 90, 91]  [87, 95, 106]  [67, 68, 79]  [89, 107] The authors of  initially discuss the on-going evolution in the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) architectures to flat and ultra-flat designs trying to scale up their performance and satisfy the continuously growing traffic data demands.
The initial work on 3G was in 1991 as 2G technologies such as GSM and CDMA networks just started to deploy. 4G systems were built on the second phase of 3G and started its operation in 2011 when all networks were expected to be IP-based. LTE and later on LTEA were designed as an upgrade to 2G and 3G systems that were in use previously. In an attempt to meet the standards proposed by ITU, LTE includes several specifications and features that are far superior to pre-LTE technologies, while still falling short of the outlined ITU specifications.