A < B by Kiran Kedlaya

By Kiran Kedlaya

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A) Prove that any polynomial P (x) such that P (x) ≥ 0 for all real x can be written as the sum of the squares of two polynomials. (b) Prove that the polynomial x2 (x2 − y 2 )(x2 − 1) + y 2 (y 2 − 1)(y 2 − x2 ) + (1 − x2 )(1 − y 2 ) is everywhere nonnegative, but cannot be written as the sum of squares of any number of polynomials. S. Bullen, D. Vasi´c, Means and their Inequalities, Reidel, Dordrecht, 1988. [2] G. E. Littlewood, and G. P´olya, Inequalities (second edition), Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1951.

The first condition implies the second because all eigenvalues of a symmetric matrix are real. ) Theorem 27 (Hessian test). A twice differentiable function f (x1 , . . , xn ) is convex in a region if and only if the Hessian matrix Hij = ∂2 ∂xi ∂xj 30 is positive definite everywhere in the region. Note that the Hessian is symmetric because of the symmetry of mixed partials, so this statement makes sense. Proof. The function f is convex if and only if its restriction to each line is convex, and the second derivative along a line through x in the direction of y is (up to a scale factor) just Hy · y evaluated at x.

The real numbers x1 , x2 , . . , xn belong to the interval [−1, 1] and the sum of their cubes is zero. Prove that their sum does not exceed n/3. 3. (IMO 1972/2) Let x1 , . . , x5 be positive reals such that (x2i+1 − xi+3 xi+5 )(x2i+2 − xi+3 xi+5 ) ≤ 0 for i = 1, . . , 5, where xn+5 = xn for all n. Prove that x1 = · · · = x5 . 4. (USAMO 1979/3) Let x, y, z ≥ 0 with x + y + z = 1. Prove that 1 x3 + y 3 + z 3 + 6xyz ≥ . 4 34 5. (Taiwan, 1995) Let P (x) = 1 + a1 x + · · · + an−1 xn−1 + xn be a polynomial with complex coefficients.

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