By William D. Davies
Madurese is an enormous local language of Indonesia, with a few 14 million audio system, customarily at the island of Madura and adjoining elements of Java, making it the fourth greatest language of Indonesia after Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese. there isn't any latest complete descriptive grammar of the language, with present reviews being both sketches of the full grammar, or unique descriptions of phonology and morphology or a few specific subject matters inside of those parts of the grammar. there is not any competing paintings that offers the breadth and intensity of insurance of this grammar, particularly (though now not solely) with reference to syntax.
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Extra resources for A Grammar of Madurese (Mouton Grammar Library 50)
At the lower level of speech, kasar ‘rough’, and with biyasa ‘usual’ vocabulary used in all speech situations, there is greater similarity between Madurese and Indonesian, although similarity between Madurese and Javanese is widespread here as well. 1. Consonants The similarities and differences among consonants in Madurese, Indonesian, and Javanese cognates are most striking at the phonemic level, so in what follows, underlying representations are given. The Madurese phonetic form also appears.
Stevens (1968) estimates that 95% of all Madurese words make use of these alternating vowels. Each pair consists of a high vowel and a non-high vowel that match in backness and whose distribution is determined by the phonological environment in which it occurs. The pairs are given in (20). (20) Alternating vowels ɛ~i ɔ~u a~ɤ ə~ɨ The conditioning environment is the preceding consonant: high vowels follow the voiced and voiceless aspirated stops; the low counterparts occur elsewhere, although there are systematic exceptions for [l], [r], , and [s] under specific circumstances discussed below.
Syllable structure and phonotactic constraints 25 The opposite correspondence obtains in some cognates. Indonesian /a/ is // in Madurese. Due to the restriction on schwa, this occurs only in closed syllables. (11) Madurese [sənnə] [maləm] [kərrəp] [takəp] Indonesian [səna] [malam] [kərap] [tangkap] ‘happy’ ‘night’ ‘often’ ‘catch’ The words ‘happy’ and ‘often’ illustrate an alternative to the /ə/ ~ /a/ correspondence. Rather than a phonemic /a/ where Indonesian has schwa in an open syllable, the onset of the following syllable is geminated, creating the proper environment for Madurese /ə/.