By Vojkan Vidojkovic, J. van der Tang, Arjan Leeuwenburgh, Arthur H.M. van Roermund
This e-book investigates suggestions, advantages, barriers, and prices linked to multi-standard operation of RF front-ends and their skill to conform to variable radio environments. subsequent, it highlights the optimization of RF front-ends to permit greatest functionality inside a undeniable energy funds, whereas concentrating on complete integration. eventually, the e-book investigates probabilities for low-voltage, low-power circuit topologies in CMOS expertise.
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Extra resources for Adaptive Multi-Standard RF Front-Ends (Analog Circuits and Signal Processing)
23) 26 CHAPTER 2. 8 Amplitude spectrum of the complex signal xc (t) Signal xr (t) is the real part and signal xi (t) is the imaginary part of the complex signal xc (t). 24) Xr (ω ) and Xi (ω ) are the Fourier transformations of the signals xr (t) and xi (t), respectively. 26) The amplitude spectrum of the complex signal xc (t) is presented in Fig. 8. The signal component at the positive frequency in the spectrum does not exist. 8) to generate two signals that have the same amplitude and a phase difference of 90◦ .
The complex filter rejects image signal and reduces the dynamic range that the ADC has to handle, while amplifier sets a proper level of a down-converted signal before it reaches the ADC. The generic front-end architecture is presented in Fig. 15. It is a full complex, two path front-end architecture. In general, signals are down-converted, filtered and amplified n times before they are converted into the digital domain. The number n depends on the required final intermediate frequency, dynamic range that has to be handled by the ADCs and a level that signal must have before it reaches the ADC.
26) The amplitude spectrum of the complex signal xc (t) is presented in Fig. 8. The signal component at the positive frequency in the spectrum does not exist. 8) to generate two signals that have the same amplitude and a phase difference of 90◦ . Such signals are called quadrature signals and consequently, LO is called Quadrature LO (QLO). These are also called I/Q signals, where I denotes an in-phase component and Q denotes a quadrature component. Based on these considerations it is possible to synthesize the down-converter that can perform the frequency down-conversion function and that can allow image rejection after the frequency down-conversion.