Addiction: A Reference Encyclopedia by Howard Padwa

By Howard Padwa

Habit: A Reference Encyclopedia deals directly speak and transparent solutions on a subject usually sensationalized within the media and politicized in the course of campaigns. Drawing from a wide selection of assets, it presents readers with a concise but thorough evaluate of what we all know approximately every kind of addictive behavior.Addiction surveys either the technology of dependancy and its background within the usa with major sections: a story of the heritage of habit as a systematic and public coverage factor within the usa through a sequence of alphabetically equipped entries excited about businesses, members, and occasions that experience impacted our brooding about dependancy. a lot of the paintings makes a speciality of substance abuse—alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cocaine—but the e-book additionally examines behaviors that experience only in the near past been famous as very likely addictive, together with playing, sexual intercourse, web utilization, and extra.

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Around the turn of the twentieth century, a series of legal controls over opium and its derivatives took effect: in response to fear of the Chinese immigrants who used opium, several states began passing ordinances against opium smoking; the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act required proper labeling of medicines, leading many manufacturers to drop opium from their products; in 1909, the United States organized an international conference to tackle the opium problem in Asia; in 1914, the federal government instituted tight controls over opium and its derivatives with the passage of the Harrison Narcotics Act; and in the 1920s, the League of Nations took the lead in an international campaign to stamp out opiate addiction across the globe.

While the drug has been used in the Arab world as far back as the thirteenth century, its use has become increasingly common in countries like Somalia and Yemen in recent years. When the leaves and stems of khat are chewed, or the crushed into a tea that can be drunk, the plant’s main psychoactive ingredient, cathinone, can have a stimulant effect. The substance creates a mild sense of euphoria, and makes people who use it talkative, hyperactive, and aggressive, and it can also enhance selfesteem.

The best way to alleviate these unpleasant symptoms is to take a fresh dose of opiates or opioids, thus increasing tolerance and making withdrawal even more difficult when users next come down from the drugs. 21 22 | Reference Essay Though these withdrawal symptoms generally subside within two or three days, they are extraordinarily difficult to endure, and addicts will go to great lengths—even lying or stealing—to get more drugs and avoid these negative side effects. Some addicts become psychologically addicted to the drug, as they seek out its pleasant effects, though many report that they do not continue using opiates and opioids for long periods of time in order to get high; instead, they continue using them because the negative side effects of withdrawal are so painful.

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