Anatomy of the Dicotyledons: Volume II: Wood Structure and by C. R. Metcalfe, L. Chalk

By C. R. Metcalfe, L. Chalk

This revised version of quantity II of the Anatomy of the Dicotyledons completes the final advent to plant anatomy supplied via this demonstrated botanical reference paintings. as well as a finished dialogue of wooden constitution and different themes (see desk of contents), quantity II encompasses a revised model of Takhtajan's taxonomic process for the Dicotyledons, in an effort to be used because the foundation for relations descriptions in destiny volumes.

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MICROTRENCHING Microtrenching is a technique for installing conduits into narrow “slot-cut” trenches in the ground. Currently the only fiber lines installed with microtrenching in New York City are owned by Verizon, who received a franchise for a microtrenching pilot program in 2013 as part of its franchise agreement to provide citywide fiber optic connectivity (for more, see Verizon sidebar). Microtrenching involves less intensive excavation work to install than going deep into underground ducts, but only a limited number of fiber strands can be added and they are less protected from the elements.

Today, the cables it runs throughout the city are primarily for network traffic on mobile phones (for more, see Cell Towers in Above Ground). TRANSIT WIRELESS Transit Wireless provides wireless connectivity to the Metropolitan Transportation Authority’s subway platforms (for more, see Subway Wireless Networks). WINDSTREAM COMMUNICATIONS While at the time of this writing, Windstream markings have only been sighted at 60 Hudson Street, a major New York carrier hotel (for more, see Carrier Hotels in Ground Level), the Little Rock–based company is worth noting here due to a clever trick it pulled in the summer of 2014 that could reflect future patterns in telecommunications businesses.

In 2008, Verizon entered into a franchise agreement with DoITT to build out an all-fiber network (branded Fios by Verizon) to serve all New York City residents with access to fiber optic cable connections. At the time, this was seen as a major opportunity to address the city’s digital divides by bringing high-speed broadband to underserved areas still running connections across old coaxial or copper lines. According to the terms of the agreement, once a part of the Fios network “passed” (a distinction that will become relevant later) a building, that building’s owner could request Fios service be installed, at which point Verizon would have a six-month window to do so.

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