By José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz de Urbina
Partly because of its unique position in the languages of Europe, yet customarily due to its simple typological alterations with better-described languages, Basque has usually attracted the curiosity of linguists of very diversified theoretical persuasions. This publication provides a suite of articles that are consultant of labor being performed on Basque in the interim from a generative viewpoint. lots of the significant concerns in Basque Syntax, Morphology and Phonology are tested during this booklet and the consequences of the Basque info for theories of common grammar are made specific.
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Extra resources for Generative Studies in Basque Linguistics
In accounting for how the tense and modal markers that occur in the absolutive position are assigned, I have avoided forms with ergative agreement. This has mainly been done for ease of exposition. However, under a descrip tion like (46), ergative agreement becomes a crucial test ground, because in the structure proposed the ergative marker is structurally higher than the modal, since it belongs in a higher projection (recall (26)). When a Tense morpheme is present, the presence of the ergative marker, adjoined to Tense, does not affect the hierarchical relation of Tense with re spect to the inflected form.
The number of verbs that can be inflected in this manner is very small, and older stages of the language had a much larger set of synthetic verbs (see Lafon 1944). ; some other verbs, like atxeki "attach", jarraiki "follow", esan "say", eman "give" or entzun "hear", are occasionally used in synthetic fashion in literary language. It is not at all clear what syntactic or semantic feature, if any, defines the set of synthetic verbs; I will assume that it is a lexical idiosyncracy, and that synthetic verbs are already marked as such in the lexicon.
This phenomenon has re ceived a number of names, depending on the point of view taken to analyze it; for convenience, I will refer to it as 'Ergative Displacement'. It is traditionally described as follows: (49) ERGATIVE DISPLACEMENT: if an inflected form has a) a third person absolutive agreement clitic and b) a non-third person ergative agreement clitic and c) it contains either the past tense morpheme or the modal morpheme or the conditional morpheme then a) the clitic corresponding to the ergative appears in the canonical place of the absolutive, and b) the absolutive clitic does not appear.